Transferrable Intangible Assets. 

Cash flow is what adds value to your business.  The value of your business to a potential buyer can be measured based on the expected future cash flow.

The price someone is willing to pay depends on the predictability, sustainability and the growth of that future cash flow.

Key elements of value depend on the continued presence of the key tangible and intangible assets which have been developed.  They sync to produce a product or service.

Intangible Assets:

Your workforce:   This includes the experience, education or training of the workforce. A study of (McKinsey & Company) 13,000 executives from 120 companies and case study of 27 leading corporations, found that talent will be the most important resource in the next 20 years.

Information base:  This includes business books, records, operating systems and other information base. This includes customer related information base, accounting or inventory control systems, customer lists, newspaper, magazine, radio or television advertisers.    This relates to a systemized system of your operation.  A business with a systemized operation/process for producing and selling products or services, has a higher value.  By having a developed and documented operating system (like manuals), you create more value to your business which a buyer is willing to pay a premium for.

Supplied-Based intangibles: Sometimes a business may have a relationship with another business who is exclusive.  This could be anything from a unique part of an engine to space in a major store to sell products.  This can be favorable supply contracts, or favorable credit ratings.  This helps with the future value of the company.

Licenses and Permits (private or governmental):

Covenants not to compete:  For example, an exclusive territory which competitors can’t compete in.

Franchises, Trademarks and Trade Names: This give exclusivity to the organization.    Trademarks, and Trade names.

Government Licenses and Permits:  Any right or license granted by a governmental unit is an intangible assets. The right to use, sell, or service in an area which is unique just to a business will add value to the concern.

Going Concern Value: A going concern value is the additional value that attaches to the property by the reason if its existence as an integral part of an ongoing business activity.

Absence of contingent liabilities: A business not having pending litigation, tax audits or breaches of contracts.  Also, a company without negligence claims, product liability claims and other contingent liabilities is considered an enhancement of a business.

Goodwill: Goodwill is attributable to continued customer patronage expectancy.  The goodwill can create value because of the reputation, along with other factors of the trade or business.     The public perception of a business.



In some cases, when a business owner wishes to sell their business, they may not be in the best possible position.  For example, they may be a C corporation.  Because of the double taxation of the C corporation, it does not create an effective tax environment for selling the business.   Consequently, positioning to a pass-through entity would be more advantageous.  However, that takes time to arrange.

The principal advantage of this flow-through entity structure is that dividends can be paid by the company to the owners without additional tax.  In other words, the dividends can be placed into the hand of the owner with having only incurred taxation to the owner, not to the corporation and then the owner.

Under a C corporation, when the corporation distributes dividends (distribution) to the stock holders, the corporation must pay a tax on the corporate side, then the recipient pays tax on that distribution.  Dividends are not tax deductible to a corporation, so consequently there is the double tax. Bottom line, double taxes!

When you have an S corporation or LLC the Key employees can receive its share of company dividends free of additional taxation and use the dividend proceeds dollars-for dollars to pay for their stock investments.

It is important that in the future when you consider exiting your business, you start the process of planning with the most effective tax structure for the future. The C Corporation is fine when you are not in exit mode, and there are no dividend distributions.

Timing is important as it takes time to move from a C corporation to another form of pass through structure, such as a LLC or S corp.  Early planning will be a benefit.

A change from C Corp to a pass-through company can have tax ramifications, so planning is essential in when to, or if to, make this move.

Tax on Assets:

If you sell an asset of the corporation, it is possible that there is a corporate tax on that sale.  However, if you sold an asset of an S corporation, there would not be a corporate tax.

If you are considering changing your business type, we suggest you discuss this strategy with your tax advisor. 

Creating Cash Flow In Your Business

Selling your business to a key employee, or a group of employees.

Assuming that all of the purchase price is to come from the key employee (s), you can help the purchase, by (a) using a stock dividend distribution, or (b) bonus of money to the employ, such as a bonus executive program.  (See Restricted bonus agreement). 

It is important that the company have consistent cash flow, (discretionary cash flow;) to use for this purpose.  (This is the cash generated by the company which is not needed to run the operations, for debt service or capitalization of the business).

Planning for the sale of the stock to insiders, and cash flow; 

It is important to have a accurate idea of the yearly cash flow.  For example, if the discretionary cash flow is $1 million a year. You might commit 10% of the company, or $100,000 a year to help pay for stock.  Continue reading “Creating Cash Flow In Your Business”

Key group wants to buy your business, buy do they have skin in the game?

When considering the transfer of stock to a key employee, or a group of key employees, (referred to Key group), you need to determine how much they want to be involved in the company, and the risk they are willing to take in the future of the company.

In Tier One of the purchase, the key group will purchase stock.  They purchase stock from future salary, financing, or from future cash flow in the form of dividend payouts.

It wouldn’t be uncommon for the owner to want to see the purchasing employee put some skin in the game.  Seeing the employee be committed allows the employer to consider future financial programs to help the employee purchase the balance of the stock under Tier 2 (the selling of the balance of the stock). 

The owner in most cases will look at the bottom line what they want in the end and the financial capabilities of the key employee.  Smaller employees will try to make it easier for the key person to purchase the stock.  Using a bonus plan to help them buy the stock can be a very useful tool for both parties.  The employer gets a tax deduction, while the employee has additional funds to purchase equity in the company.

Using lower valuation for a better cash flow when business is sold Continue reading “Key group wants to buy your business, buy do they have skin in the game?”

Building Business Value Techniques!

If you permanently left your company today, would it continue with little effect on cash flow?  If so, would you consider this a transferable value? Transferable value is a driver that is critical for business growth.

A company management team is instrumental in growing cash flow and business value.  When a business has the capabilities of having little disruption with its cash flow when an owner leaves, you have a valuable transferable value.  A key component of building transferable value is Next-Level Managers. Usually they are experienced working for larger companies. They know how to grow companies and know how to attract people with experience and the skill to help run a company.   This level of management will demand more money, perhaps ownership as a condition of employment.

Next level management (NLM) and future changes!

  1. To attract NLM, it involves training and coaching for the existing management. When adding NLM it may involve replacing current managers who underperform.
  2. The decision to replace existing management is difficult and hard for many owners, as current management members have been loyal to the company. However, they may be moved to another position with the same type of responsibility.  They are good employees, but NLM do a much better job in the management position.
  3. Engage management consultants and outside resources to create more growth. NLM work well with these professionals.
  4. Owners provide leadership and motivation for management. Owners should design plans that provide strong incentives to management to remain with the company beyond the owner’s exit.
  5. Motivate employees to perform at higher levels, create a culture.
  6. Financial incentives designed to grow cash flow or business value is more likely to achieve the value or cash flow necessary to support the owners’ exit goals and value growth of the company.
  7. Top management must stay in the business when owners leave, or they don’t have a transferable value and will not achieve the goals when the owner exits. Incentive benefit plans help keep top management employees involved after the exit of the owner.
  8. The use of a “non-qualified deferred compensation plan” or NQDC Plan which involves a benefit formula and vesting schedule, highly motivates management to stay on.
  9. When you cobble the benefit formula to a performance benchmark it is possible to increase cash flow and profitability for the company.
  10. The vesting schedule in the benefit it makes it hard for the top management person to leave. They will leave too much on the table. The vesting schedule give the employer the benefit of keeping a top level management.  The employee benefits as the company can offer a richer benefit knowing the reward the employee receives is tied into the company’s profitability.
  11. The appeal of incentive plans for key employees (management) is understandable: To create transferable value, someone other than the owner must be similarly motivated to grow value and the cash flow necessary to achieve the owner’s exit goals and continue the company beyond the owner’s exit.

Operating Systems That Enhance The Transferable Value Of A Company!

Continue reading “Building Business Value Techniques!”


A major challenge for a small business owner is selling their business for the right price and to the right purchaser.  However, in most cases we find that many business owners don’t spend the needed time to do this planning.  Consequently, they jeopardize the potential sale price.

Many small businesses will not be purchased from an outside purchaser, (about 5%), but the sale could come from either family members or inside employees of the business.

A 2003 study suggested that owners felt nine out of ten family owned business leaders thought their business will continue to be run by the same family or families in the next five years. [1]

You may have considered keeping the ownership of the business in the family and may have already gifted stock or sold stock to your children.  If this is the case, your planning should be more directed to other parts of the financial life, and possibly the role as a passive owner in the business.


The Four Life Changes Of A Business Owner!

What is it that you think about the most as a business owner?   Chances are they are one of four things:

  • What if I don’t want to stay in business and I want to drop out?
  • What if I get sick, disabled, or die?
  • What if my key person (s) decides to leave me?
  •  What if I can’t increase and improve my cash flow (life blood of the business), or the economy crashes?  

Besides running the day to day of the business, and the stress that goes with this, the four items listed above are probably the biggest stressful thoughts business owners have.   Let’s break them down.

Why the typical business owner thinks about these issues, is because they know they put a lot of sweat, tears, money, time  into their business.  They have most of their wealth in the business,  and know that they have no way of extracting that wealth when these events happen!

What if I don’t’ want to do this any longer and just want to drop out? 

Think about it!  The business owner has most of their wealth and time tied into this business.  In most cases it is very difficult to just stop doing what they are doing, lock the front door and leave the responsibility, wealth and reputation behind.  They still need their wealth in the business to maintain their life style.

Business owners are human beings and sometimes they just get tired of doing what they are doing, they burn out.   Sometimes they feel they are trapped and living a life of desperation.  They are making a nice living, and seeking to make a great life  for themselves and their families.  Chances are when they started the business they were only looking for a place to go, a position, a paycheck, and with a little luck a dream. The stress of running a business can take its toll on the businessman and the family.

They need the wealth they have invested, but don’t have a way of selling the business at a reasonable price.   Can the business be sold to an outsider?  Or, is there someone inside the company who will buy the business?  If so, do they have the money?  Is there someone who would run the business while the owner keeps their hands in the business?  Or, do they liquidate it?   Many times, even if a business owner sells their business, they find that after the taxes and expenses there’s not enough capital at a guaranteed rate of return to produce the income needed to keep the business owner and their family in the lifestyle they been used to. Because of this factor, more stress is added to the business owner and their future income. Continue reading “The Four Life Changes Of A Business Owner!”